Negative deposit rate
Europeans have about 1,200 billion invested in monetary funds such as term deposits, treasury bills or bonds with a short maturity. Until 2008, this was a nice alternative to the rock-solid and classic savings account. But this changed after the financial crisis. The European Central Bank decreased the intrests, causing hardly anything to earn on short term investments. The deposit rate of the ECB is now even negative. This means that financial institutions that want to put excess capital at the ECB, will have to pay while they used to earn for this.
Because of several new and stricter laws, financial institutions must build up a larger buffer to cope with potential new financial crises. Herefore they rather choose money from retail customers and, to a lesser extent, businesses. These are generally more loyal to their financial institution and do not change as quick from bank. Large sums of money are shifted more regularly with institutional investors. Because of this, financial institutions are not so welcoming towards them and handle a defense mechanism with the negative deposite rate. This is why investment institutes are automatically being driven towards monetary funds with a negative return.